Chemistry

What is Nitric acid?

What is Nitric acid?

Nitric acid, (HNO3), colorless, fuming, and extremely corrosive liquid (freezing level −42 °C [−44 °F], boiling point 83 °C [181 °F]) that could be a widespread laboratory reagent and a necessary industrial chemical for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives. It’s poisonous and might trigger extreme burns. The preparation and use of nitric acid had been recognized by the early alchemists.
A standard laboratory course of use for a few years, ascribed to a German chemist, Johann Rudolf Glauber (1648), consisted of heating potassium nitrate with concentrated sulfuric acid. In 1776 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier confirmed that it contained oxygen, and in 1816 Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Claude-Louis Berthollet established its chemical composition.

 

The principal technique of manufacture nitric acid is the catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Within the technique developed by the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald in 1901, ammonia gas is successively oxidized to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide by air or oxygen within the presence of a platinum gauze catalyst. The nitrogen dioxide is absorbed in water to kind nitric acid. The ensuing acid-in-water answer (about 50–70 % by weight acid) might be dehydrated by distillation with sulfuric acid.

Nitric acid decomposes into water, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen, forming a brownish-yellow solution. It’s a sturdy acid, fully ionized into hydronium (H3O+) and nitrate (NO3) ions in aqueous answer, and a strong oxidizing agent (one which acts as the electron acceptor in oxidation-reduction reactions).
Among the many many necessary reactions of nitric acid is neutralization with ammonia to kind ammonium nitrate, a significant part of fertilizers; nitration of glycerol and toluene, forming the

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